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7 Types of Industrial Storage Tanks Explained
Industrial storage tanks are containers used for storage of gas, oil, water, and petrochemical products, employed for industrial uses. Industrial storage tanks come in different sizes and shapes.
They can be underground, horizontal, and vertical, and be made from concrete, stone, fiberglass, steel or plastic.
Industrial storage tanks can be categorized into several types based on the substance they hold and some other factors.
1. Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks
Industrial fuel storage tanks, known as petroleum tanks also, can store various fluids. In general, they are used for storing non-organic and organic liquids. They can also hold vapor as well as different flammable fluids. Fuel storage tanks are manufactured in various designs and sizes. They are designed to store a variety of fuels, vapor, and industrial liquids.
Types of Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks
There are two main types of fuel storage tanks – Aboveground tanks and Underground tanks.
Aboveground Fuel Tanks
Aboveground fuel tanks (AST) are quite popular because of their lower long-term maintenance and upfront costs. These tanks are more cost-effective to install compared to underground tanks since you don’t need to spend for backfilling, deep excavation, and pavement of more involved piping.
Aboveground fuel tanks offer greater ease of maintenance compared to the below ground tanks. You can check them easily for leaks and access for repairs. This is the reason aboveground fuel storage tanks are preferred for storing fuels and chemicals.
Underground Storage Tanks
In Underground storage tank (UST), at least 10% of the tank’s stored volume is buried underground. Such tanks that are used for storing hazardous materials or fuels are regulated, and must have registration with the EPA.
These tanks are suitable for people wanting to maximize the space and/or value of their property. Underground storage tanks can be put beneath lawns and driveways, where they are not visible. Arguably, these types of tanks are safer as the chance of explosion is very little. However, the chance of leaks as well as that of generating pollution is increased in case of these tanks as they cannot be inspected often.
2. Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks
Industrial chemical storage tanks are employed for storing fertilizers, propane, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel), crude oil, and other chemicals. Industrial chemical storage tanks are available in various shapes and sizes. These storage tanks are used for mixing, processing, static storage, and transport of finished chemical products as well as raw materials.
Types of Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks
There are three chief types of industrial chemical storage tanks available –
? Stainless steel tanks
? Polyethylene tanks,
? Fiberglass (FRP) tanks
Stainless steel storage tanks are effective and durable; however, they are not suitable for many acids as well as are the most expensive option.
Fiberglass tanks are suitable for some applications. However, they have seams that may leak, need increased maintenance, more prone to human error as they are handcrafted, and are susceptible to certain chemicals such as hydrofluorosilicic acid – a chemical which etches glass (FRP’s structural component).
Polyethylene storage tanks come in cross-linked as well as linear polyethylene, and make the most versatile industrial storage tanks in the market.
Consider the Chemical to be Stored
When planning an industrial chemical storage tank unit, the most important factor to consider first is the chemical to be stored. It’s wrong to believe that if a storage tank can hold water, it can hold a chemical too. While a water storage tank might hold a chemical for some time, remember that the tank has not been designed specifically to store the chemical. Several factors may degrade the tank, causing leaks and leading to other hazards.
Fortunately, polyethylene industrial storage tanks can handle any chemical type that you want to store. Polyethylene chemical storage tanks are affordable, sturdy, and strong. Polyethylene storage tanks are made in a mold that rules out the likelihood of human error. Moreover, these tanks are available in various options which help in protecting your storage environment, the chemical, and your employees.
The chief types of polyethylene materials used for chemical storage tanks are – Linear Polyethylene and Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE).
Safety Concerns for Chemical Tanks
A failed or damaged chemical tank can lead to serious property damage and environmental contamination. If chemical storage tanks spill or leak, the chemicals stored may flow into streams and lakes, contaminate groundwater and drinking water, or catch fire. Chemical fire can lead to contamination of water and soil as well as pose threats to human health.
Failure of chemical storage tanks may occur due to deterioration or corrosion, construction flaws, poor maintenance, spills during transfers, overfills, and lack of or improper containment for leaks.
3. Industrial Oil Storage Tanks
Oil storage tanks are reservoirs or containers that hold oil temporarily during the different phases of processing into oil products of various types, or before it’s consumed or used. The materials and structure of industrial oil storage tanks are based on their application as well as the safety, environmental, and legal requirements of other kinds in the storage area.
Oil storage tanks in different sizes, shapes, materials, and types are employed from crude oil’s initial production to the distribution and refining of different petroleum oil products.
Modern industrial oil storage tanks come in the materials – carbon steel, stainless steel, reinforced concrete, and plastic. They are also carved on rock salt deposits that are mostly impermeable, for underground storage of oil. Various oil storage tank types have been built over time.
Types of Industrial Oil Storage Tanks
Floating Roof Tank
As the name suggests, the floating roof tank consists of a floating roof which falls or rises according to the level of oil in the tank. To prevent the build-up of vapor inside the tank, the floating roof in this type of tanks has been incorporated as a safety feature.
Fixed Roof Tank
In the fixed roof tank, the oil stored is not exposed. This tank type is employed for holding oil products in lower volumes than in case of tanks having floating roofs.
Bunded tanks are enclosed by one more tank or have a containment dike surrounding the tank. The containment dike or outer tank acts as a catch system for preventing leakages, oil spills, or other types of oil contamination from being spread to the surroundings.
Single Skin & Double Skin Tanks
Single skin tank has one layer and double skin tank has two layers of plastic or steel. Double skin tanks are also known as twin-walled tanks.
Open Top Tank
This type of industrial oil storage tank was used earlier. Its use is limited now due to evaporation losses as well as the risk of oil catching fire.
4. Industrial Hot Water Storage Tanks
Industrial hot water storage tanks are ASME certified built to be used in industrial applications in which a constant hot water supply is required. During low demand periods, water is heated and stored inside the water storage tank, which will be available to be used in times of high hot water demand. This enables efficient energy use while offering hot eater whenever required.
Water makes a good medium of heat storage due to its high specific heat capacity. Water can store greater heat per unit weight in comparison with other substances. Moreover, water is low cost and non-toxic.
An industrial hot water storage tank that’s insulated efficiently has the ability to retain the stored heat for many days, thus reducing the fuel costs. These storage tanks in industries may consist of an inbuilt oil or gas burner system, and electric immersion heaters. Hot water tanks of certain types utilize external heat exchanger, like a central heating system. Alternatively, these tanks types may use heated water from a different energy source.
Insulation of Hot Water Storage Tanks
Hot water storage tanks typically have heat insulation for lowering energy consumption, quickening the heating process as well as maintaining desired operating temperature. Standby heat loss is reduced by thicker thermal insulation. Water heaters come in varied insulation ratings; however, extra layers of insulation can be added outside the water heater for reducing heat loss. In case of extreme conditions, a water heater may be fully enclosed within an insulated space that’s specially constructed.
Fiberglass makes the most common type of insulation for water heaters. It’s fixed in place using straps or tape or with the water heater’s outer jacket. In cases where burner is used, the combustion gas outflow or air flow should not be blocked by insulation.
Most of the modern water heaters comprise insulation of applied polyurethane foam (PUF). In cases where it’s crucial to access the inner tank (where particularly aggressive oxygen levels or minerals are present in local water supply), PUF insulation is used in an encapsulated form. This allows the insulation layer to be removed to conduct regular integrity checks as well as repairs to the tank (if needed).
Hot water can lead to dangerous and painful scalding injuries, in the elderly and children especially. Water temperature at the outlet must not be greater than 49 degrees Celsius. Whereas, water stored below the temperature of 60 degrees Celsius may allow bacteria growth (the bacteria causing Legionnaire’s disease).
5. Industrial Water and Liquid Storage Tanks
Water and liquid storage tanks are used to store a variety of liquids like kerosene, jet A, diesel, gasoline, waste oil, and for underground burial and pressurized applications. Liquid storage tanks come in different types, such as cryogenic liquid storage tank each type having its own specific applications.
Types of Water and Liquid Storage Tanks
Onion tanks are a great option to store water quickly during emergency events. These tanks are self-rising having fittings that are easy to access. Moreover, these tanks can be moved as well as set up within minutes.
Pillow (Bladder) Tanks
Collapsible tanks – referred to as blivet, bladder, or pillow tanks also – are an effective re-usable temporary storage solution.
Poly tanks have domestic uses too. They are used for various applications including rainwater collection and drinking water storage. Poly tanks are available in different types that include wastewater tanks, mobile tanks, above ground tanks, and more.
Fiberglass liquid storage tanks are durable as well as they don’t corrode or rust easily. These tanks have a high level of temperature resistance. They come with different coatings so as to offer optimum performance with various liquid storage needs.
Welded Steel Tanks
Welded steel tanks make a reliable solution for storage over long term. They come in various shapes and sizes to fit different types of applications.
Corrugated Steel Tanks
Corrugated steel liquid storage tanks are versatile, durable, economical, and have a good longevity. They are made using galvanized corrugated steel. These tanks are available in various sizes as well as can be customized for meeting specific project needs. Corrugated steel tanks are used for rainwater collection, industrial process water, or fire suppression.
6. Industrial Plastic Storage Tanks
Water storage is important for domestic, residential, industrial, and commercial purposes. Plastic water storage tanks are one among the best ways for water storage conventionally. Plastic tanks are light-weight, highly durable, and occupy less area compared to cement and concrete tanks. Moreover, plastic tanks have greater flexibility compared to conventional storage tanks. Such advantages of plastic water tanks have made them a popular option.
Materials Used to Make Plastic Water Storage Tanks
Plastic water tanks are made with different materials like linear low density polyethylene, fiber glass materials or polypropylene.
Applications of Plastic Water Storage Tanks
Plastic water storage tanks are seeing increased applications in food processing, wastewater containers, chemical manufacturing, suppression valves, and agriculture and irrigation.
Plastic tanks are built on the basis of the liquid type to be stored. The storage capacity of these tanks lay between 1.5 and 1.9 specific gravity. Plastic used in a storage tank usually allows the liquid level to be visible easily.
Plastic storage tanks are employed widely to store liquids that include brine, waste vegetable oil, soaps, cleaning agents, industrial chemicals, agriculture and farm chemicals, diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), liquid fertilizers, potable water, and non-potable water.
Classification of Plastic Water Storage Tanks
Plastic water storage tanks can be classified into various types based on polymer type, plastic type, size, shape, and application.
? On the basis of polymer type, plastic tanks can be classified into – polyethylene, fiberglass, and others.
? Based on plastic type, plastic tanks can be spilt into – fresh and recycled.
? According to shape, plastic water storage tanks can be split into – rectangular, cylindrical, and others.
? Based on size, these tanks can be classified into – large (greater than 5000 liters), medium (from 1000 liters to 5000 liters), and small (less than 1000 liters).
? Based on application, these storage tanks can be split into – industrial, municipal, residential, and commercial.
Cylindrical water tanks of medium size are usually made with recycled polymers that are polyethylene based.
7. Industrial Gas Storage Tanks
Most materials which are in gaseous state at ambient pressure and temperature are supplied in the form of compressed gas. The gas is compressed into pressure vessels for storage (like tube trailers, gas cylinders, or gas canisters) using a gas compressor through piping systems. Gas cylinders are most commonly used for gas storage, with large numbers being produced at “cylinder fill” facilities.
However, all of the industrial gases are not supplied in gaseous phase. Some gases are vapors, liquification for which can be done under pressure alone at ambient temperature, so these gases can be supplied in the form of a liquid too in a suitable container. These gases are useful in the form of ambient refrigerants owing to this phase change. The well-known industrial gases having this property are – sulfur dioxide, butane, propane, and ammonia.
Delivery of Gas
The important industrial gases are bulk produced and delivered by pipeline to customers. However, they can be packaged and then transported too.
Most of the gases are sold inside gas cylinders and a few gases are sold in the form of liquid inside suitable containers or in the form of bulk liquid that’s delivered by truck. Originally, the industry supplied gases within cylinders to prevent any necessity for generation of gas locally. However, for large customers like oil refineries or steelworks, a large-sized gas production plant can be built nearby (known as “on-site” facility) for avoiding the use of cylinders in large numbers manifolded together.
Types of Industrial Gas Storage Tanks
There are different types of storage tanks in industries available. The type of industrial gas storage tank required by a plant depends on several factors including the holding capacity, measurement, and shape of the container.
Continuing Education Activity
Anesthetic vaporizers are an essential piece of anesthesia equipment. This activity reviews the modern anesthetic vaporizer classification, the physics principles behind their functioning, and possible hazards that could be present at the time of using an anesthetic vaporizer. It also highlights the role of the interprofessional team in managing the technical complications related to the use of anesthetic vaporizers in patients undergoing general anesthesia.
Identify the indications and contraindications for the use of anesthesia vaporizers.
Describe the equipment required to administer anesthesia vaporizers.
Review the potential complications and clinical significance of anesthetic vaporizers.
Outline interprofessional team strategies for improving care coordination and communication to advance the use of anesthesia vaporizers and improve clinical outcomes.
Since the first publicly performed anesthetic procedure at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1846, vaporizers have been an essential component of anesthesia equipment. The emergence of potent inhalational anesthetics with unique properties has influenced the evolution of vaporizers. Modern anesthetic vaporizers have been developed to provide accurate amounts of anesthetic gas while mitigating the effects of temperature and barometric pressure on the evaporation process, allowing anesthesiologists to conduct their work with greater safety.
The functioning of vaporizers is complex; and requires an in-depth understanding of thermodynamics, gases, and physics. While engineering may not be the forte of many anesthesiologists, familiarity with the proper functioning of the anesthetic equipment and the ability to recognize equipment failures are essential to decrease the potential for patient hazards.