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    Understanding Metal Stamping
    Metal stamping is a cold-forming process that makes use of dies and stamping presses to transform sheet metal into different shapes. Pieces of flat sheet metal, typically referred to as blanks, is fed into a sheet metal stamping press that uses a tool and die surface to form the metal into a new shape. Production facilities and metal fabricators offering stamping services will place the material to be stamped between die sections, where the use of pressure will shape and shear the material into the desired final shape for the product or component.

    This article describes the metal stamping process and steps, presents the types of stamping presses typically employed, looks at the advantages of stamping compared to other fabrication processes, and explains the different types of stamping operations and their applications.

    Basic Concepts of Metal Stamping

    Metal stamping, also referred to as pressing, is a low-cost high-speed manufacturing process that can produce a high volume of identical metal components. Stamping operations are suitable for both short or long production runs, and be conducted with other metal forming operations, and may consist of one or more of a series of more specific processes or techniques, such as:

    Punching

    Blanking

    Embossing

    Coining

    Bending

    Flanging

    Punching and blanking refer to the use of a die to cut the material into specific forms. In punching operations, a scrap piece of material is removed as the punch enters the die, effectively leaving a hole in the workpiece. Blanking, on the other hand, removes a workpiece from the primary material, making that removed component the desired workpiece or blank.

    Embossing is a process for creating either a raised or recessed design in sheet metal, by pressing the raw blank against a die that contains the desired shape, or by passing the material blank through a roller die.

    Coining is a bending technique wherein the workpiece is stamped while placed between a die and the punch or press. This action causes the punch tip to penetrate the metal and results in accurate, repeatable bends. The deep penetration also relieves internal stresses in the metal workpiece, resulting in no spring back effects.

    Bending refers to the general technique of forming metal into desired shapes such as L, U, or V-shaped profiles. The bending process for metal results in a plastic deformation which stresses above the yield point but below the tensile strength. Bending typically occurs around a single axis.

    Flanging is a process of introducing a flare or flange onto a metal workpiece through the use of dies, presses, or specialized flanging machinery.

    Metal stamping machines may do more than just stamping; they can cast, punch, cut and shape metal sheets. Machines can be programmed or computer numerically controlled (CNC) to offer high precision and repeatability for each stamped piece. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) and computer-aided design (CAD) programs ensure accuracy. Various tooling machines for the dies used in the stampings are available. Progressive, forming, compound, and carbide tooling perform specific stamping needs. Progressive dies can be used to create multiple pieces on a single piece simultaneously.

    What is Electrical Fitting?
    As you know,the conduit fittings as attachment or accessories for electrical conduit,so we called electrical fitting,conduit fitting or conduit accessories in general.They are used for connect the conduit for easier run the wires in whole house and connect to your electronic appliance.Different conduit has different fitting for connect,you must be pay more attention the size and standard before purchased.
    The Benefits of Electrical Fittings

    Maybe you never thought about this issue seriously, but what happens if we don’t have fittings?

    (1) Easy to Connecting Conduit & Running Wire

    If you don’t have a bend or reducer on hand,you will be crazy.

    We can’t arrange the pipes and wires in a straight line for the whole house which is determined by the geometry.In most cases,it is necessary to turn at the corner and to arrange the wire under or on the wall such as ceiling lamp installed.

    However,you need to repair part of the tube sometimes for it is damaged,but you can not replace all of them instead of repair part of a pipe.So the fittings can help you to do this.

    (2) Protect Wires

    Good quality conduit can be kept safe of your wire,but it need to match with nice quality fittings too.For example, If you encounter a 90° corner, there is no bend or related fitting on hand.When we run the wire directly and through the pipe, this may cause additional bending and pressure on the wire insulation layer,resulting in whitening of the insulation layer and faster aging.Once the insulating layer fails, there may be a risk of electric shock.

    Moreover,a well-sealed conduit will reduce the probability of water and dust entering,which not only keeps the pipe clean, but also protects the safety of the wires.

    (3) Easy to Pull the Wires

    If you need to modify the direction or position of the previous wiring for some reason,and we supposed you do not have any special tools.It is the wrong way to pull the wire directly from the right-angle wire tube because this will damage the insulation layer of the wire during the process of pulling the wire,which may cause danger in some cases.Moreover, pulling the wire in this way is easy to get stuck and increasing in construction time.

    The Difference Between Hot-Dip Galvanizing And Cold Galvanized
    Hot-dip galvanizing and cold galvanized the difference:

    1. Galvanizing, also known as hot-dip galvanized, he is the ingot melted at high temperatures, a number of supplementary material in place, then dipped galvanized metal structure slot, the metal component on a layer of zinc coating . The advantages of hot-dip galvanizing corrosion of his ability, adhesion and hardness of zinc coating is better

    “Cold plated” or “plating”, ie the zinc salt solution by electrolysis, to the plating on the coating, generally do not have heating, small amount of zinc, the wet environment is very easy to fall off.

    2. Hot dip galvanized (galvanizing)

    Hot-dip galvanizing is a chemical treatment, is the electrochemical reaction.
    Cold galvanizing is the physical address, just brush the surface layer of zinc, the zinc layer is easy to fall off. Construction in the use of hot dip galvanizing.

    Continuous hot dip galvanizing process: steel → heating → cooling to the temperature galvanized galvanized → cooling →

    Cold galvanized zinc is only 10-50g/m2, its own corrosion resistance than hot dip galvanized a lot of difference. Galvanized by a relatively cheaper price.
    Hot dip galvanized steel body is hot dip galvanized surface under the condition of its adhesion strong, not easy to fall off, although there hot dip galvanized pipe corrosion phenomenon, but in a very long period to meet technical, health requirements.

    3. Technological differences

    First of all, is the difference between process: hot-dip galvanizing is the workpiece degreasing, pickling, dipping, drying liquid immersion in molten zinc certain period of time, can be raised.
    Also known as electro-galvanized cold galvanizing, is to use electrolysis devices work piece through the degreasing, pickling ingredients post into the zinc salt solution, and connect the anode electrolysis equipment; in place across parts of zinc plate connected to the electrolysis equipment positive, power on, use of current from the cathode to the anode of the directional movement of the workpiece will be deposited in a layer of zinc.
    Zinc finished the difference: no cold galvanized hot-dip galvanizing delicate bright appearance, but the thickness of zinc coating of cold galvanizing aspects of hot-dip galvanizing is a few times. Galvanized corrosion resistance is also several times.

    4. Environmental issues

    Fewer emissions of some hot-dip galvanizing.
    Galvanized pollutants are mainly artifacts of waste acid pickling.

    Cold galvanized pollutants include parts of the waste acid pickling, electroplating waste, liquid waste such as passivation.
    Cold galvanized the type and quantity of pollutants discharged are much more than hot dip galvanizing.
    Hot-dip zinc standards: GB/T13912-92
    Hot-dip galvanizing: hot dip galvanizing process is generally completed after Hemming, when the load is not less than 5mm thick flat steel, the galvanized zinc coating after the average weight of not less than 610 grams / square meter; when the load flat steel thickness less than 5mm, the galvanized zinc coating after the average weight of not less than 460 grams / square meter, and after galvanizing quality requirements should be consistent with the provisions GB/T13912

    What is ADSS Fibre?
    All-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) cable is a type of optical fiber cable that is strong enough to support itself between structures without using conductive metal elements. It is used by electrical utility companies as a communications medium, installed along existing overhead transmission lines and often sharing the same support structures as the electrical conductors.

    ADSS is an alternative to OPGW and OPAC with lower installation cost. The cables are designed to be strong enough to allow lengths of up to 700 metres to be installed between support towers. ADSS cable is designed to be lightweight and small in diameter to reduce the load on tower structures due to cable weight, wind, and ice.

    In the design of the cable, the internal glass optical fibers are supported with little or no strain, to maintain low optical loss throughout the life of the cable. The cable is jacketed to prevent moisture from degrading the fibers. The jacket also protects the polymer strength elements from the effect of solar ultraviolet light.

    Using single-mode fibers and light wavelengths of either 1310 or 1550 nanometres, circuits up to 100 km long are possible without repeaters. A single cable can carry as many as 864 fibers.

    What is overhead line fitting?
    Overhead line fitting is a wide range of steel fittings that are used to construct the overhead line,it is used to hang, connect or protect conductors or insulators.

    Overhead line fitting is also called overhead line hardware or overhead line accessories.

    According to the function, overhead line fittings can be divided into:

    String hardware

    Suspension clamp

    Tension clamp

    Splicing fitting

    Protective fitting

    Dead end fitting

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